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Luk 2:1-20 in SWF/T

Lûk 2:1-20 in Kernowek Standard

 The text here is given in the Single Written Form, using Traditional Graphs, and using Late Cornish options where applicable. This means that the text has dn rather than nn and bes in some words rather than bys. Colours are used to show the various kinds of differences between the SWF text and the KS text. The key to the colours is below the text sample.
 1Y wharva y’n dedhyow na, ordenans dhe dhos adro dhyworth Cesar Awgustus, y talvia dhe oll an bes bos reknys. 2Cyrenyus o governour Syry pan wharva an kensa reknans ma. 3Ha pub huny y’n bes a dravalyas dhe vos nombrys, keniver onen dh’y dre y honen.1Y wharva i’n dedhyow-na, ordenans dhe dhos adro dhyworth Cesar Augùstùs, y talvia dhe oll an bës bos reknys. 2Cyrenyùs o governour Syry pàn wharva an kensa reknans-ma. 3Ha pùb huny i’n bës a dravalyas dhe vos nùmbrys, kenyver onen dh’y dre y honen.
 4 Ha Josef eth yn-badn ynwedh dhia Alyla dhyworth Nazara bys in Judy ha dhe cita Davyth o gelwys Bethlem, awos ev dhe vos a deylu hag a lynaja Davyth, 5may halla va bos niverys gans Maria y wreg ambosys, ha gans flogh o hi. 6Y wharva pan esens i y’n tyller na, may teuth pres hi golovas. 7Hi a wrug deneythy hi mab kensa ha hi a’n maylyas yn lystednow hag a’n settyas yn presep yn stabel, dre reson nag esa tyller ragdhans y’n gwesti.4Ha Josef êth in badn inwedh dhia Alyla dhyworth Nazara bys in Jûdy ha dhe cyta Davyth o gelwys Bethlem, awos ev dhe vos a deylu hag a lynaja Davyth, 5may halla va bos nyverys gans Maria y wreg ambosys, ha gans flogh o hy. 6Y wharva pàn esens y i’n tyller-na, may teuth prës hy golovas. 7Hy a wrug denythy hy mab kensa ha hy a’n maylyas in lystednow hag a’n settyas in presep in stabel, dre reson nag esa tyller ragthans i’n gwesty.
 8 Yth esa bugeledh y’n keth pow na hag i y’n gwel ow qwetha aga flockys dres an nos. 9El an Arludh a dhisqwedhas dhodhans ha glory an Arludh a wrug dywy oll adro, hag own bras a’s teva. 10Ha’n el a leverys dhodhans, “Na berthewgh own; rag mirewgh, yth esov ow tri dhywgh messach a lowena vras rag oll an bobel; 11rag hedhyw re beu genys dhywgh yn cita Davyth Sylwyas, henn yw an Arludh Crist. 12Ha helma a vedh sin ragowgh: why a gav an flogh bian maylys fast gans lysten hag ev a’y wrowedh in presep.” 13 Ha dystowgh y feu gwelys warbarth gans an el niver bras a lu nev ow praysya Duw hag ow leverel, 8Yth esa bugeleth i’n keth pow-na hag y i’n gwel ow qwetha aga flockys dres an nos. 9El an Arlùth a dhysqwedhas dhedhans ha glory an Arlùth a wrug dywy oll adro, hag own brâs a’s teva. 10Ha’n el a leverys dhedhans, “Na berthowgh own; rag merowgh, yth esof ow try dhywgh messach a lowena vrâs rag oll an bobel; 11rag hedhyw re beu genys dhywgh in cyta Davyth Sylwyas, hèn yw an Arlùth Crist. 12Ha helma a vëdh sin ragowgh: why a gav an flogh bian maylys fast gans lysten hag ev a’y wroweth in presep.” 13Ha dystowgh y feu gwelys warbarth gans an el nyver brâs a lu nev ow praisya Duw hag ow leverel,
 
14 “Glory dhe Dhuw a-vadn ha war an norves cres dhe’n re na usy orth y blesya!”
14“Glory dhe Dhuw avadn ha wàr an norvës cres dhe’n re-na usy orth y blesya!”
 15 Pan wrug an eledh diberth dhortans bys yn nev, an vugeledh a leverys an eyl dh’y gila, “Deun ny bys yn Bethlem may hallen gweles an wharvedhyans ma re wrug an Arludh declarya dhyn.”15Pàn wrug an eleth dyberth dhywortans bys in nev, an vugeleth a leverys an eyl dh’y gela, “Deun ny bys in Bethlem may hallen gweles an wharvedhyans-ma re wrug an Arlùth declarya dhyn.”
 16 I eth dy gans toth bras ha cafos Maria ha Josef ha’n flogh a’y wrowedh y’n presep. 17Pan welsons an flogh, i a dherivas an dra re bia cowsys ortans adro dhodho. 18Kettel glowas pobonan hedna, i a gemeras marth bras a whedhel an vugeledh. 19Saw Maria a sensas an taclow ma yn town yn hi holon hag ombredery anedhans. 20Y’n eur na an vugeledh a dewhelas tre arta, hag i ow praysya Duw hag orth y wordhya awos an maters oll a wrussons clowes ha gweles, poran kepar del vowns i derivys arag dorn dhodhans.16Y êth dy gans toth brâs ha cafos Maria ha Josef ha’n flogh a’y wroweth i’n presep. 17Pàn welsons an flogh, y a dherivas an dra re bia côwsys ortans adro dhodho. 18Kettel glôwas pùbonen hedna, y a gemeras marth brâs a whedhel an vugeleth. 19Saw Maria a sensas an taclow-ma yn town in hy holon hag ombredery anodhans. 20I’n eur-na an vugeleth a dewhelas tre arta, hag y ow praisya Duw hag orth y wordhya awos an maters oll a wrussons clôwes ha gweles, poran kepar dell vowns y derivys arag dorn dhedhans.
 
  • Red indicates vowels which have anomalous quality in the SWF. The letter u for example typically means [yː]~[iː] when long and [ʏ]~[ɪ] when short. But in many words u should be long [uː] or short [ʊ]; in KS these are written û and ù respectively. Instances of o which should represent [ʊ] rather than [ɑ] are also highlighted in the SWF text.
  • Dark red also indicates anomalous vowel quality. A class of words has an alternation [iː]~[eː]; these cannot be distinguished from words with short [ɪ] that do not alternate with [eː], or from words with long [eː] which do not alternate with long [iː]. In KS the user may choose to write either ÿ or ë for these words. (Typically if one says [biːz] one will write bÿs and if one says [beːz] one will write bës. Both are equally correct.)
  • Dark orange indicates another anomalous vowel quality. A class of words has an alternation [eʊ]~[oʊ]; these cannot be distinguished from words without this alternation. In KS the user may choose to write either êw or ôw for these words. (Typically one would follow one's own pronunciation. Both are equally correct.)
  • Firebrick indicates anomalous vowel quality as well. A class of words has an alternation [æː]~[ɒː]; the SWF allows these the be written a or oa, but this does not make the words unambiguous. In KS the â is written for these long vowels.
  • Dark blue indicates monosyllables in [iː]~[əi] which in the SWF are written -i. This inauthentic spelling has little justification; there are only three monosyllables in the language ending in [iː] which do not alternate with [əi] (my/me ‘I’, ty/te ‘you’ and the negative ny ‘not’). Like the SWF’s bras~broas, its ny~nei offers no real advantage to RLC users.
  • Crimson indicates vowels which have anomalous quantity in the SWF. The words pan and war for example should have long vowels in them by the ordinary orthographic rules. The short vowel is marked à.
  • Purple indicates fricatives in unstressed final position which in the SWF are written with voiced graphs although they represent voicelss consonants. The letter dh in unstressed final position represents [θ] and so is in KS written th. The letter v in unstressed final position represents [f] and so is in KS written f. This color is also used for the SWF cavos, a form which is poorly attested, in favour of the form cafos used in KS; it is also used where SWF has ragdhans but KS has racthans [ˈɹækθənz] (not *[ˈɹæɡðənz]).
  • Salmon indicates instances in the SWF of initial y, particularly in the preposition yn. The SWF did not really take the preferences of Revived Late Cornish speakers into account; many of them find the letter y to be "too medieval". Writing i in initial position increases the use of the letter; the spelling in is quite common in traditional Cornish. This usage also permits the distinction between the preposition in [ɪn] which does not mutate the following word, and the particle yn [ən] which does.
  • Slate blue indicates diphthongs in the SWF which should really represent pure vowels. SWF writes them as diphthongs ay which means [ai] and aw which means [aʊ]; in a number of these words, KS writes ai and au, which represent the phonemes /e/ and /o/ respectively.
  • Dark green indicates the particles ma and na which in the SWF are not attached to their heads with a hyphen. KS uses a hyphen here (as Breton does) to help distinguish these particles from the verb ma (short form of yma and the negative particle na.
  • Black indicates various problems the SWF. Most of these are examples of i which, being short, should be written y even in polysyllables, for consistency. The infelicities result from the SWF having taken in “etymological” forms from KK uncritically. (The words nyver ‘number’ and lyver ‘book’ rhyme, and should be spelt alike.)
  • Deep sky blue indicates errors in the SWF. The SWF does not accept helma, which is absurd, since this is attested in BM, Tregear, and CW. Another error is the distinction of the present ending -owgh from the imperative ending -ewgh. This distinction goes back to Jenner but is nowhere attested in the texts. A most serious problem is the SWF specification that doubled letters be used in monosyllables which are typically unstressed. This gives SWF del ‘so, as’ which could be written in KS as dèl, though KS prefers the regular dell as there is no reason that a handful of words should have sentence-stress indicated in this way. Far worse is the SWF specification that henn~hedn be written—when *hedn does not occur (There is an alternation henna~hedna, of course.) KS writes hèn, hèm, etc.
  • Dark orchid indicates the disambiguating use of a redundant diacritical mark. The word eth can mean ‘eight’ or ‘went’. The vowel is long [eːθ] according to the ordinary rules, but the verb is marked redundantly with a circumflex in KS to distinguish it. A few other words in KS are similarly marked.
  • Brown indicates a RLC prepositional form in the SWF specification which differs from a form used in the KS text here. Further research should be done on this area to determine the range of forms which should be recommended.