[Spellyans] 2nd pl imperative

nicholas williams njawilliams at gmail.com
Mon Feb 16 10:57:18 GMT 2009

Second Person Plural Imperatives.
Here are some examples from the texts; -ough/owgh forms are at least  
as common as -eugh/ewgh forms.
BM usually has -ugh in the imperative and the 2nd plural indicative  

A das dovt na bertheugh why OM 729
na bertheugh ovn a henna OM 2508
pertheugh cof ol an tokyn PC 1081
hag arta perthugh coff guel BM 1064
Na berthugh ovn annethy BM 4136
na berthowgh dowt BK 1679
a vyth gwrys, na berthowgh dowt BK 3022.

na vezough temtijs dygnas PA 53d
ha bethough war PC 879
betheugh why fur RD 2276
bethow ware TH 18
ha bethough war BK 3261
cowetha bethowgh parys CW 2009
ragtha bethowgh avysshes CW 2367
bethowh ware navo lethys CW 2517
bethow why looan TBoson.

leuerough mar pyth sawys PA 95a
ha leuerough bos gevys PA 113c
po cryst leuerough scyle PA 125d
leferugh x 5 in BM
Leverough both ages brys BK 392
leverough expedient! BK 2139
Leverough scon BK 2226 [I cannot find *levereugh],

gosloweugh ol a tus vas RD 3217
golsowugh orth iubyter BM 2327
golsowugh orth iubyter BM 3601
golsowowh tha ve lemyn CW 115
peys I say golsowogh a der dro CW 1431.

geseugh vy the worthyby PC 2493
geseugh y the thysplevyas RD 2832
geseugh y the thysplevyas BM 942
Gesugh creys vfel ha clovr BM 1312
arluth gesugh vy the govs BM 3310
gesowgh ny the gafus TH 3
Gesowgh oll rancor TH 30

Na thegough sor yn golon PA 37a
degeugh an pren a thyhons OM 2810
degovgh genough pup huny PC 2047
degeugh e a thesempys RD 2184
dotho degogh lytherov BM 2796
degeugh aberth maria BM 4067
degowgh an toyt mes a’m golok BK 751-52
henna degowhe destynye CW 127

lemmyn merough pe nyle PA 125c
myrough in agis colon PA 141d
myreugh worth an vorvoran PC 2403
ha merovgh agis leffrov BM 95
merow lymmyn omma TH 18
Lo merogh attave genogh TH 36a
Merowgh inweth war germany TH 49a
Merough ple ma an Romans BK 2808
Merough, ple ma an cronak! BK 3256
merowgh merowgh orth hemma CW 736
merough pymava towles CW 1139
merowgh mester pymava  CW 1550
mero ma res gennam JBoson.

ytho why kemereugh e PC 1977
ottense kemereugh e PC 2165
kemereugh corf a'n drok was RD 2159
kemerogh luen edrega BM 2750
Kemerogh wyth lymmyn TH 27
Kemerogh an spurissans TH 36
Kemerogh why an spurissans TH 38a
kemerogh example anethy TH 49a
Kemerogh, debbrogh, henew ow corffe ve TH 52
Kemerogh ha debrogh, kemerogh hag evogh TH 52a
Kemerogh, debbr(ogh), hem ew ow corff ve SA 62a
A henna kemerough cur BK 2105.

evough why par cheryta PA 45b
golyough ha pesough ow zas PA 53c
yn meth crist deugh holyough ve PA 53a
golyough ha pesough yn ven PA 57b
koscough lemmyn mar sew prys PA 61b
powesough wy yv grevijs PA 61b
deugh geneff ha holyough ve PA 63c
gothvezough na rellough tros PA 63c
Olough rag agis fleghys PA 169a

The -ewgh ending for the 2nd imperative may be useful as a spelling;  
it is hardly warranted by the texts, since imperative -ough is already  
customary in the Passion Poem.


On 16 Feb 2009, at 09:16, Michael Everson wrote:

> *Are* there texts from BM or before which distinguish the ending of  
> the 2nd person plural present-future was not consistently  
> distinguished from the 2nd person plural imperative? Or is this just  
> a ghost?

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