[Spellyans] SWF glossary E-F

nicholas williams njawilliams at gmail.com
Mon Aug 1 14:20:13 IST 2011

These are my comments:

SWF Glossary



Where is kenyver?



dywscovarn is unattested. The only attested plural is scovornow: scovornow PC 1361, 1391, TH 21a; scovurnow TH 19; skovornow BK 1657, RCEV: 97; skovernow BK 1917.



Where is a-brys? Cf. mittin a brees ‘tomorrow early’ RCEV: 99



Where is êsy? This is written <eysy> 9 times in TH.



Lhuyd cites houldreval once at AB: 5a where he says it means ‘sunrising’. He does not give it the meaning ‘east’. Nance 1938 gives howldrevel and puts an asterisk before the meaning ‘*East’. The only word apart from Yst for ‘east’ is dùryan in the englyn: howlsethas, gogleth, duryan, dyhow (see CS15: 21).



The attested word is parkya, now found 6 times in BK.



Add fynsya: mar quregh fynsya sesyogh thymmo an prevyon BM 3525-26.



People use ryvbost: Kestava gans: Ray Chubb dhe +44 (0)1209-842394 po ken danvonneugh ryv-bost ray@ agantavas.org po ken pryntyeugh ha danvonneugh agan form omrolya.



Add envy: oges yma ov envy BM 1013; ov envy in kerth galsons BM  1069. Add contrary: rag mygtern a omwrello ze sesar yw contrary PA 146d. Add enmy: Agys enmy BK 667; war the enmy a rys gans lune devocyon BK 2675-76; warlergh dyswul ow enmy BK 3219.



For the sense ‘last’ add durya: bys vickan dell thurrya an bys TH 17; mar te an bys ha durya mar bell TH 50a; Ha Ra thort heenath da heenath dirry TBoson; ha en forth a ell moygha dyrrya Keigwin; mar bell tra clap an terminnyow ma han wlas dyrria Keigwin.



Pow Sows in an invention of Nance’s. Apart from Tregear’s ynglond, englond, Englond, the only attested name for ‘England’ is Lhuyd’s Pou an Zouzn AB: 2c.



add yn tien, leun-, cowl-



+ equal (equall TH x 2, CW x 1; egwal CW x 1).



+  myskemeres; cf. Miskemerez ‘mistaken’ AB: 248b.



+  TH has error seven times. I spell this errour.



Where is scappya?


nynsus scapya thy’nny ny OM 1656
ny wren scapye OM 1706
gueyt an harlot na scapyo PC 990
byth na scapye PC 1888
byth na schapye PC 2270
mar scap yth eugh the’n mernans RD 378
pur wyr ny scap kyn fynno RD 383
pan glowe y vos scappys BM 1030
na schappya benen in beys BM 1559
malbev an flogh a scappyas BM 1581
byth ny schappyons heb mernans BM 2469
ny scap, ru’m pen BK 2606
mars an cowars re scapyas BK 2834
ny geas scappya deva an preys CW 1972-23.
Dibenn is an invention and would mean ‘headless’, not ‘eternal’. Eternal, eternall is attested 8 times in TH and once in BK.
Pub dedh is not the LC expression for ‘every day’. Gwavas says kinefar journa i.e. kynever jorna


Where is kettep onen (attested over 10 times?)


Kenyver also means ‘everyone’:

The orth crist y ruk pesy certen desyr eredy the kenever an gorthya BM 4425-27

So keneuer a wothfa redya ha vnderstondia TH 32a

openly the kenever a whelha ha vo o sevall rebta SA 60

Why a thyrfyn cafas gras drys kenever us in wlas BK 3046


So does kenyver den: the Canevar den gwyrrian a vo desyrius e gowis SA 60.

So does kenyver onen: ha tra kaldzha kynifar uynnyn a ôr kouz Kernûak AB: 223.



Your note says: The adjective ‘tebel’ stands before the noun it describes; ‘drog’ can stand before or after the noun. This isn’t really correct:


prest an ezewon debel ze Ihesus esens a dro ‘always the wicked Jews were about Jesus’ PA 140d

Re an ezewon tebell a leuerys heb pyte a wottense ow kelwel hely zozo zy wyze ‘Some of the wicked Jews said without pity, “Behold he is calling on Elijah to preserve him.”’ PA 203ab rag dewes mar nystevyth yn certan y a dreyl fyth hag a worth dewow tebel ‘for if they do not get drink certainly they will change allegiance and will worship evil gods’ OM 1816-18

ham kyke yv escar teball pur ysel me an temper ‘and my flesh is an evil enemy; I shall tame it full low’ BM 162-63.


On the other hand I can find only one example of drog following its noun:


Nefra cosker ongrassyas menogh a ra bostov bras neb tebel dorne pan vo grueys mas hap drok orthugh a skyn gase farwel me a vyn molleth du in cowetheys ‘Ever an ungracious crowd will often make great boast when some evil trick is done. But an evil fortune will descend upon you. I shall take my leave. God’s curse on the company’ BM 1282-87.


Here mas hap drok may be a misreading for parhap drok, in which case there are no examples.

Your note might be rephrased: Note: both adjectives drog- and tebel- usually precede the noun they qualify.



apposya is poorly attested. I can find only one example (BM 525). Much commoner is examnya:


me a vyn y examyne PC 389
me a vyn y examne PC 1210
dun warbarth th’y examnye PC 1451
whet vn wyth y examnye PC 1467
me a fyn y examnye PC 2149
y examnye my a wra PC 2176
na rens ef examnya den vith arell TH 23a
rag examyna ha trya agan honyn TH 54
ty chet gwraf tha examnya CW 302.


The glossary cites ensampel, which is attested once only in TH. Lhuyd has Rag Sampl AB: 223; NBoson has Sompel. By far the commonest word is exampyl, examplys:


dre exampyll a henna me a dryst why a vith circumspect TH 5
Dre an kyth exampil ma TH 6
merkyow an exampill ma inta TH 6a
warlerth an examplys a dus tha TH 10
mas an very gyrryow ha exampill agan Savioure Jhesu crist TH 21
dre an examples a crist y honyn TH 23
dre aga teball examplis ha gwrythyans TH 25a
aga duty haga vocacyons, dre an exampill ma TH 39
the gafus exampill in matyr ma TH 49a
ha kemerogh exampyl anethy TH 49a
In oll an kith examples TH 56a
mas vsya exampels Christ SA 61a.


RLC dowlagas is a fiction. Dewlagas is last used in the Ordinalia; thereafter lagasow, lagajow are the only forms. The RLC for ‘eyes’ is lagajow (lagagow Rowe x 3).



bejeth is confined to Late Cornish; enep is Old Cornish. The default word for ‘face’ is fas, face and is attested nearly 50 times. It should come first.



Where is mothow CW 1226?



The word fals as an attributive adjective is prefixed to its noun.


my re gyrhas thy’s the dre mab adam a[n] fals huder may hallo genen trege ‘I have fetched home to you the son of Adam, the false deceiver’ OM 564-66

gorreugh an fals nygethys gans abel a desempys the yssethe ‘put the false renegade immediately to sit with Abel’ OM 914-16

nyns a den vyth vynytha a’n keth re-na the’n tyr sans marnas calef ha iosue rag y the vynnas gorthye fals duwow erbyn cregyans ‘no one of those same with go to the Holy Land except Caleb and Joshua because they wanted to worship false gods contrary to belief’ OM 1879-82

re fethas an fals ievan hythyw ter-gwyth yn certan ‘he has conquered the treacherous demon three times today’ PC 154-55

pan faryng vs y’n temple gans ihesu an fals brybor ‘how are things in the temple with Jesus, the false vagabond?’ PC 374-75

da vye kyns dos sabovt dyswruthyl an fals profes ‘it would be good before the Sabbath comes to destroy the false prophet’ PC 561-62

iudas ny gosk vn banne lymmyn dywans fystyne thu’m ry the’n fals yethewon ‘Judas is not seeping at all but is hastening immediately to betray me to the false Jews’ PC 1078-1080

rak fals iudas nep a’m guerthas ogas yma ‘for false Judas who has betrayed me is near’ PC 1101-02

ihesu parde a nazare an fals crystyon ‘Jesus by God from Nazareth, the false Christian’ PC 1111-12

dyllyrf thy’nny baraban ny ol a’th pys dre the voth ha crous ihesu an fals guas yntre dismas ha iesmas ‘deliver to us Barabas, we all beseech you by your will and crucify Jesus, the false fellow, between Dismas and Jesmas’ PC 2484-87

ty re worthyas war nep tro an fals losel ‘you have worshipped on some occasion the false scoundrel’ PC 2692-93

a fals harlot gowek pur ‘O false villain, utter liar’ RD 55

lauer thymmo ty lorden ay covs ty falge negethys ‘speak to me, you churl, of his words, you false renegade’ BM 776-77

Yma in pov falge cregyans ov cul dym angyr an iovle ‘There is in the country false believ that is giving me the devil’s anger’ BM 1161-62

Te falge horsen nam brag vy ‘You false whoreson, don’t threaten me’ BM 3491

Out warnogh wy falge guesyon ‘A curse upon you, you false fellows’ BM 3803

Bethow ware a fals prophettys ‘Beware of false prophets’ TH 19a

na ny gotha thetha settya in rag na mentenya fals discans thyn bobill ‘nor should they set out nor maintain false teaching for the people’ TH 32a

Gwayt e worthya pub termayn ha nagh Astrot ha Jovyn ha’th fals duwaw in pub tu ‘Take care to worship him always and deny Astrot and Jove and your false gods on every side’ BK 221-23

Fals du ema ow conys ‘He worships a false god’ BK 399

An fals brybours dre bur tholowrs ru’m grug muscog ‘The false vagabonds by sheer affliction have driven me mad’ BK 747-49

Me, Hirtacy, 2636 mightern Partys, a veth iwys orth Arthor, an fals brathky ‘I Hirtacy, the king of the Parthians, indeed will venture against Arthur, the treacherous cur’ BK 2636-39

Mar kowsyth moy a Arthor o’m goith ve, te fals bribor! neffra ny thibbryth bara ‘If you speak more of Arthur in my presence, you false vagabond! never shall you eat bread’ BK 3185-87

Na’ra chee boaz faulz teaze bedn tha contrevack ‘Thou shalt not be a false swearer against thy neighbour’ William Rowe


The glossary doesn’t mention this.



The plural of tiak is tiogow. There is no attested plural *tiogyon.


Vulgus, popel tiogou OCV
Bewnans moy suer ew the dus fuer bos tyowgow BK 764-66.
Why no sira?
My version of the glossary uses trad. graphs but it writes Hwevrel not Whevrel. Notice that Whevrer/Hwevrer is unattested, being a Nancean invention. The attested forms are:
Huerval & Huevral AB 7b
huevral AB: 31c
Huevral [cor. Huerval] AB: 59a
Mîs-Huevral ACB: F f 2v.
The verb ‘kill oneself’ is not omladha. The attested form is:
rak hacre mernans certan eys emlathe y honan RD 2072-73
and the verb is thus omladha y honen.
wosteweth OM 2762; woteweth PA 10d, PA 38c, TH 34; wottywath BK 756; otyweth BM 4255.
As common is wàr an dyweth:
rag agys exortya why lymmyn war an dyweth the consyddra TH 5
uor an diuath ea reeg thoas da chei Teeack JCH §3 (Boson)
ha vor duath e rig doaz tha Goon St. Eler JCH §13 (Boson)
ha uar an dûadh e ’ryg dhoz dho tshei tîak JCH §3
ha uar an dhiuath e rig doz dha Gûn St. Eler JCH §13
Ha war an diuedh Dzhûan a dhêth uar’ ago phidn JCH §29
Ha uar an diuadh dzhei ’ryg doz dha Kûz karn na huìla en Borrian JCH §37
Wor duath Gra Gwenz Noor East whetha pell JBoson.
The glossary omits wàr an dyweth.
+  fynsya from BM

*fyrv is unattested. Nance gives ferf from Welsh ffyrf and Breton ferv. The attested word is fyrm:
yth o cryff ha fyrme heb aucthorite vith arell TH 50a.
Stedfast is also well attested:
ha stedfast y’th ambosow PC 949
hag a'n guyth stedfast ha len PC 3225
a rug pub vr sevall stedfast TH 34.
Staga is an invention. See my comments on ‘attach’.
blejen, blejyow are not the Cornish words for ‘flower, flowers’. Blejyow occurs only in Dewsull blegyow ‘Palm Sunday’ PA 27a. If you are going to use the unattested blejen, then its plural ought to be blejennow. Flour, flouren, flourys are the ordinary words.

Freth does not mean ‘fluent’ and its use in this sense needs to be discouraged. It means ‘active, vigorous, insolent’ For ‘fluent’ I recommend frosek, frojek.
The dictionary does not cite folya, which is used 18 times by Tregear. It is also attested in BK:
Ef a velyk an dythyow may tallythyf e foulya BK 2315-16
Coos means ‘wood’; ‘forest’ is forest:
’barth in forest ow arluth BK 41
[forest. Gooddron. gastell] BK 58 (stage direction)
me a’n cafas, ru’m ena! i’n forest ha’n yet degys BK 76-8
i’n forest a Rosewa BK 99
[lehan veen. Ke a dyrhas i’n forest a Rosewa.] BK 101 (stage direction)
me a vyn mos pur vskes than forest quyck a lema CW 1467-68.
hager precedes its noun.
There is no evidence for MC Frynk but LC Frenk. Moreover I don’t know where the Pow in Pow Frynk comes from. The attested forms are as follows:

War tua Frynk fystynnyn BK 2735
Nenna e eath car rag Frink JTonkin
Materen Frink, thera vi a menia JTonkin
Kynyphan frenk AB: 74a
Pokkys Frenk AB: 82a
Brethonek Pou Lezou en Vrink AB: 222
ha ugge hedda mose tho Frenk NBoson
VRINK, France…Frink, id. ACB: A a 3v
The forms given by the glossary should be reduced to one: Frynk. Pow Frynk is unattested.
There is no real evidence for an MC/LC distinction of Frynkek/Frenkek since the only example we have with i is from Lhuyd who also writes the word with e.
The attested forms are;
Vrinkak AB: 62bc
 an Frenkock feen NBoson
Arvorek ha Frenkek AB: 222
avêz an Frenkek AB: 223
En Frenkock ha Carnoack deskes dha JBoson.
The glossary does not give either lies gweyth or lies termyn:
lyes guyth me re bysys PC 884
lyes guyth ov leuerel an temple y wre terry PC 1308-09
lyes guyth y wruk bostye PC 2439
Maria me reth pesys rag ov map sur lues guyth BM 3615-16
So lyas tyrmyn an froward nature a then a ra lyas tyrmyn predery TH 24
Whath kyn feva lyas tyrmyn assays ha teball pynchis TH 34
ha lyas tyrmyn ny a red in Aweyll TH 35a
yma S Augustyn lyas tyrmyn ow submyttya oll y Judgment TH 37a
fatell rug du thea dalleth an bys lyas tyrmyn apperya TH 55.
*frothen is an invention. *Frooth is a respelling of fruit in OCV. The only attested word for ‘fruit’ in MC is frût, plural frûtys. <frut> is attested 23 times; the plural <frutes> occurs 5 times, <frutys> four times.
In my view frût, frûtys should replace *frooth everywhere (except in poetry).
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