[Spellyans] SWF glossary Q-S

nicholas williams njawilliams at gmail.com
Mon Aug 1 21:54:16 IST 2011

Here are my comments:

SWF Glossary Q-S



The glossary appears to say that qwalyta does not refer to aspects of character. This is not borne out by the texts:


yth esa in ena, an pith o endewys gans celestiall qualites TH 1a
An corfe a vabden in state a originall innocencye hen ew the venya yehas, nerth, comlines, gans qualites erell in vhella degre a perfection TH 2a
na nyn sega ynna gwannegreth na cleves, na lake vith a qualite a travith TH 2a
Saw eff a ros thynny notabill qualitys ha powers TH 5
eff a blanges innan ny particularly reason hag vnderstonding, ha lowar qualite arell kyffrys in corfe hag in ena TH 5
hagan perseverens, gans an formes han qualites sencible TH 56.
In fact the only instances of qwalyta in TH refer to aspects of human character and nothing else.
The glossary makes a distinction between redya ‘to read’ and lenna ‘to read aloud’. This is without foundation, since lenna is unattested. Lenna is a back-formation from Lhuyd’s lenner ‘reader’, lennerio ‘readers’. Redya ‘to read’ is common at all periods, being attested about 20 times. Moreover redior ‘reader’, rediores ‘female reader’ are found in OCV.  In the medieval period, since literacy was not widespread, readers were more likely to be reading aloud than to themselves. The OC word redior, MC *redyor, would therefore as likely as not, have meant one who read aloud (in church, in the refectory, in public). The distinction in revived Cornish between redya and lenna, first suggested in GKK, is without foundation.



y’n gwir > yn gwir.



*mysy is unattested. The attested forms are seen in:


Whelas megouzion tha medge an îsse ACB F f 2

W[elsh] Medî, To Reap; Corn. Midzhi AB: 15c

Meto…To reap, mow, or cut down. C. Midzhi AB: 90a.


Lhuyd also cites Midzhar ‘reaper’ three times.



The correct word for ‘reception’ is recevans: yma S. paul ow leverell fatell ra an vnworthy recevans an sacrament ma dry iudgement ha dampnacion TH 53a.



+  remembra



*tollgorn Sowsnek for ‘recorder’, the musical instrument is an unnecessary coinage. The Cornish word recorda and is attested:


psalmus gyttrens ha nakrys organs in weth cymbalys recordys ha symphony OM 1998-2000


argel is attested in place-names.



*omlowenhe is an invention of Nance’s; it is not attested. Lowenhe by itself means ‘rejoice’.



The word relyjyon <religion> is used three times by Tregear. Does that make it Late Cornish? Crygyans is attested 17 times, but crejyans is attested 12 times. Shouldn’t crejyans be listed?



The verb is not given in the glossary. Reportya is attested once in TH and three times in BK.



The glossary cites rychys < Fr richesse. Rychyth is also common being attested six times in BM.



*Avon is unattested. Lhuyd’s form is auan: Terneuan an auan AB: 3b; Torneuan an auan AB: 141a; Auan AB: 22c, 42c, 165a, 290a; Auan bras AB: 60b. There is no evidence that *avon, *avonyow was ever heard in Cornish. In the texts the only attested word is ryver:


hag orth an ryuer surly a josselyne BM 1141-42
ryvars a thowre a ra resek in mes anetha y TH 53.
There is no warrant for the distinction between resek and ponya, where ponya means ‘run strenuously’. Resek is used of liquids:
ha pedyr streyth vras defry ov resek a-dyworty OM 772-73
avodia sur mar ny vyn y woys a resek then luyr BM 2262-63.
kepar dell ra lyas govar resak thea vn kenogan TH 8a
ryvars a thowre a ra resek in mes anetha y TH 53.
But there is no distinction between ponya and resek when applied to people:
lyas onyn a rug resak ha ponya, in stray TH 30a.

Indeed resek is quite clearly used of running strenuously in Me, Ethyon, duk Boecy, war the enmy

a rys gans lune devocyon ‘I, Ethion duke of Boetia, will run against your enemy will complete commitment’ BK 2673-76
bysmer is given a plural here. It is attested once. A collective bysmeras is now known from BK.
The glossary also gives *sclander for which there is no evidence.
The glossary gives Alban ‘Scot’, for which there is no evidence. The attested word is Scot:
yonk ha loys, Gothal ha Scot! BK 1259
Na thowtyans rag sham na Cornow na Scot BK 2486-87
Cf. Skot-Vrethonek AB: 222.
For ‘Scotland’ the glossary gives Alban, which is used once by Lhuyd. The native name occurs in BK:
Augel, myghtern in Scotland BK 1280
a Thowr Hombyr the Scotland BK 3237
Now, myghtern Scotland, Augel BK 3284.
The adjective secret is attested twice in TH. The adverb secretly is also attested twice:
mas only conceviis secretly in golan TH 28
ha sekretly bew hedre vy ow ro theso a vyth clere BK 638-40.
The glossary does not mention either.
The verb separatya used 5 times by TH and SA.
In the expression oll an chattall debarowe CW 404, I take dybarow to be an adjective, not an adverb.
kescar also means ‘separation’; see PA 24b and RD 910.
The glossary gives the plural as serpentys. The plural serpons is also attested (TH 7a)
Oferen means ‘Mass’; it is not a synonym for ‘church service’, which should servys, though gonys is widely used.
servadow is an invention.   At stanza 19c PA reads: besy yw zys bos vuell ha spernabyll yth seruys where spernabyll is for *servabyl ‘willing to serve, serviceable’. 
reydhel is an invention. The attested word is carnal:
in chast gwren ny kesvewa ha carnall ioye in bysma ny a vyn warbarth naha CW 1314-16.
The attested word is sheft:
pren the gyst ple kefyn ny a vo compes avel sheft OM 2493-94.
This is not cited.
The glossary gives the plural of form as *formow. The plural of form, whether it means ‘bench’ or ‘shape’ is formys:
cheyrys ha formys plente PC 2229
gans an formes han qualites sencible TH 56
henew an visible formes an elementys, ha an invisible corfe ha gois TH 56
The Cornish for ‘share’ (noun) is shara:
me an kare po dew deffan the wetha heb y shara CW 685-86.
The glossary does not mention shara.
The Cornish for ‘to share’ is bos kevrennek or bos gwrës kevrennek:
Ha wosa agan bewnans omma in bys, the vos kevrennek an Joyes vs in neff TH 35
A wosa y bos mabden vnwith graffys in Crist ha gwrys kevrennak ay virnans ha pascion TH 51a.
This should be mentioned.
Another word is sherp:
cales ha scherp kekeffrys PC 927
ha dreyn lym ha scharp ynne PC 2119
teulyn grabel warnotho scherp ha dalgenne ynno PC 2268-69
sherp avel spern ha morlohys BK 1664-65.
The glossary seems to have missed this.
The verb is caha not cawha: kaha En gwille, kaha En guille ‘shittabed’ Gwavas MS.
Where is Late Cornish showya?:
ha shoyah Bednath war villiaw a eze ort a Kara
If ‘sight’ means ‘view’, the word is vu:
y carsen guelas an fvu anotho y voth mar pe RD 469-70
may bome vu ha guel a’th fas RD 842.
The word syght is also used:
roy y syght dotho heb fal BM 549
Benedicite pana syght am buevy haneth in noys BM 1725-26
syght coynt y welys certen BM 1787
teka syght war ov ena ny welys in ov dethyov BM 1814-15
bo voyd am syght a pur hond BM 2414
fout syght numbus ommeras BM 2560
ihesu crist y syght grua dry den den ma del yth pesa BM 2618-19
trewethek syght yv helma BM 3823
mar thue in syght me an gor BM 3939
ny gar namur in bysma doys in ov syght nam guelas BM 4215-16]
lowenek in syght thynny BM 4434
ha teg the sight y lagasow ha pleasant TH 3a
ny bleig thym sight anotha CW 747
aban gylsen sight an tyre CW 2449
sight an noer mar kill gwelas CW 2455.
The compilers appear to have missed this.
The word arweth (arwodh) is an invention, on the basis of Welsh arwedd and Breton arouez and the imperative kevarwouth ‘guide’ at PC 1043. There is no evidence that the word ever existed in Cornish, since it is not even attested in OCV.

The attested word for ‘sign’ is tôkyn, tôknys:


ty a wylfyth an toknys OM 716
yn record yu tokyn len ov guarak a fyth settyys OM 1243-44
honna a vyth tokyn da a’n acord vs gureys hep fal OM 1246
tokyn thyugh marny thyswe PC 343
me a thysk theugh tokyn da PC 971
hep dout henna my a wra rag thy’m yma tokyn da PC 984-85
pertheugh cof ol an tokyn PC 1081
yn tokyn y vos goky ha myns a geusys foly PC 1781-82
saw yn tokyn ov bos gulan a gous ihesu nazare PC 2496-97
Bredereth dugh nes omma in tokyn a gerensa BM 4324-25
henna ew the vttra aga anger dre sygne ha tokyn TH 28a
fatla y thew tokyn a thiscrygyans TH 57
in tokyn me the fetha ow yskerans in pub tu BK 2026-27
in tokyn hy bos uval ha whek ha tek hag ylyn BK 2048-49.
The compilers of the glossary seem not to have noticed this word.
Hevelep is a noun; it is not an adjective. This error started with Nance.
For ‘sincerely yours’ the compilers give dhywgh why yn lel. This expression is not attested. John Boson ends his letter of 5th April 1710 Gen ol an kolan ve. In revived Cornish this would be Gen oll ow holon vy.
The glossary gives the verb *blasa. This is unattested, either for ‘to taste’ or ‘to smell’.
The word sarf is attested twice. The plural is not attested. The commoner word for ‘snake’ is serpont, serpent, plural serpentys, serpons, which the glossary cites under ‘serpent’ but not here.
The glossary cites first the word dyhow. This means ‘right, right-hand’, not ‘south’, which is soth. The  only place where dyhow means ‘south’ is in the OC compound dehoules ‘southernwood’.
The verb is speyna rather than spena. Notice also spendya, spyndya x 3 in TH.
In English this is in origin the same word as ‘history’. Tregear writes: S Jherom ow recordya in dalleth ay story TH 47. Story is probably the Cornish for both ‘history’ and ‘story’.
The glossary gives estren, estrenyon. This word is an invention of Lhuyd’s and his plural is not known. In OCV estren means ‘oyster’. The attested word for ‘stranger’ is stranjer and the plural of stranjers.
nyns owgh why strangers ha gwandresy, mas y thowhy citesens gans ans an syns TH 33
crist a rug apperya the ii y thissiplìs ow mos the Emavs, kepar a stranger TH 56a
Mar goynt eth of gorthebys gans an stranger BK 588-89.
Another word is alyon:
Py fyn alyon war crustunyon omma deseves settya BM 2415-17.
The compilers seem to have missed both attested stranjer and alyon and have opted for estren, an adventitious word.
The compilers give perthy, godhaf and godhevel. They omit sùffra, which Tregear uses 36 times!
Arwodh is an invention. See above s.v. ‘sign’.
I omitted to point out s.v. OPEN that the word *ygor is an invention by Nance on the basis of Breton digor. The attested word for ‘open’ at least in the metaphorical sense is opyn:
open dys me a leuer BM 410
prevys open oma yv OM 676
opyn guelys yv omma BM 4152
so yth ev opyn ha manifest therag lagas du TH 28.
The adverb openly is used by Tregear seven times. The glossary gives ygor only. It also omits the verb opya seen in: hath place she tha opea CW 240.
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