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<div class=Section1>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'>North Welsh, that’s right. I’m
not certain that the motivation is correctly interpreted – the “clear <i><span
style='font-style:italic'>y</span></i>” vowel became centralized quite
independently of its use in the diphthong.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'><o:p> </o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'>For Breton, no, the
distinction is in both the nucleus and the coda. It is very clear, with no
possibility of confusion.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'><o:p> </o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'>In <i><span style='font-style:
italic'>éw</span></i> the first part is higher than standard /e/, but not quite
/ɪ/ and not centralized at all. (I say not quite /ɪ/, but my English
wife finds the Treger Breton pronunciation of <i><span style='font-style:italic'>deg</span></i>
[de̝k] “ten”, with a short vowel clearly higher than cardinal 2,
absolutely hilarious, as she hears it as English “dick”.)<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'><o:p> </o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'>In <i><span style='font-style:
italic'>ew</span></i> the first part is probably mid-way between standard /e/
and /ɛ/; it is also somewhat lengthened in stressed final syllables.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'><o:p> </o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'>The closing, rounding
diphthongs <aw, ew, aou (ow), éw, iw> [aˑo, ɛˑo, əu, eu,
iu] all head towards the same imaginary point off the right edge of the vowel
chart; because the last three start somewhat higher, it is convenient to note
the coda with [u] rather than [o].<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'><o:p> </o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'>Once you have heard the difference
between <i><span style='font-style:italic'>béw</span></i> and <i><span
style='font-style:italic'>blew</span></i>, you could not call them close
together.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'><o:p> </o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'>So a three-way opposition is
quite possible, and even stable, as it seems to be present in a majority of Breton
dialects.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'><o:p> </o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'>That is not to say that this
ought to apply to Cornish. I find the arguments for a two-way <yw/ew> distinction
quite cogent. The KK <iw/yw/ew> opposition makes numerous KK <yw> words
correspond to Breton <ew> rather than <éw>, which seems unlikely.
Comparison with Breton and Welsh suggests to me that Cornish <iw> and
<yw> did indeed fall together as <yw>, leaving an <yw>/<ew>
opposition only.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'><o:p> </o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'>Steve Hewitt<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Cambria><span style='font-size:
11.0pt;font-family:Cambria;color:navy'><o:p> </o:p></span></font></p>

<div>

<div class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><font size=3
face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt'>

<hr size=2 width="100%" align=center tabindex=-1>

</span></font></div>

<p class=MsoNormal><b><font size=2 face=Tahoma><span lang=EN-US
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Tahoma;font-weight:bold'>From:</span></font></b><font
size=2 face=Tahoma><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Tahoma'>
spellyans-bounces@kernowek.net [mailto:spellyans-bounces@kernowek.net] <b><span
style='font-weight:bold'>On Behalf Of </span></b>nicholas williams<br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>Sent:</span></b> Wednesday, November 24, 2010
3:11 PM<br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>To:</span></b> <st1:PersonName w:st="on">Standard
 Cornish discussion list</st1:PersonName><br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>Subject:</span></b> Re: [Spellyans] iw</span></font><span
lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:
12.0pt'><o:p> </o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span class=apple-style-span><font size=4 face=Georgia><span
style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Georgia'>Actually, Stephen, the three
diphthongs in Breton seem to corroborate my thesis.</span></font></span><o:p></o:p></p>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><span class=apple-style-span><font size=4 face=Georgia><span
style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Georgia'>North Welsh has three diphthongs,
but <yw> does not contain a high front vowel but a centralised one.</span></font></span><o:p></o:p></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><span class=apple-style-span><font size=4 face=Georgia><span
style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Georgia'>This is because the series /iw Iw
ew/ was too crowded, so the middle diphthong has moved its nucleus backwards in
the mouth.</span></font></span><o:p></o:p></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><span class=apple-style-span><font size=4 face=Georgia><span
style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Georgia'>In Breton the distinction to which
you refer does not seem to be in the nucleus but in the coda.</span></font></span><o:p></o:p></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><span class=apple-style-span><font size=4 face=Georgia><span
style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Georgia'>Because the members of the series
would otherwise be too close together, in those dialects that distinguish three
diphthongs</span></font></span><o:p></o:p></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><span class=apple-style-span><font size=4 face=Georgia><span
style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Georgia'>one finds iw/ew/eo. I cannot see
from the three maps for which you provided links that</span></font></span><o:p></o:p></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><span class=apple-style-span><font size=4 face=Georgia><span
style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Georgia'>there is anywhere a series
iw/Iw/ew. The distinguishing feature of ew~éw is in the second part of the
diphthong, not</span></font></span><o:p></o:p></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><span class=apple-style-span><font size=4 face=Georgia><span
style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Georgia'>the first. Have I understood this
correctly?</span></font></span><o:p></o:p></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><span class=apple-style-span><font size=4 face=Georgia><span
style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Georgia'>If I have then my thesis stands.
George's series /iw Iw ew/ is without parallel in Brythonic.</span></font></span><o:p></o:p></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:
12.0pt'><o:p> </o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><span class=apple-style-span><font size=4 face=Georgia><span
style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Georgia'>Nicholas</span></font></span><o:p></o:p></p>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:
12.0pt'><o:p> </o:p></span></font></p>

<div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:
12.0pt'>On 2010 Du 24, at 13:45, Hewitt, Stephen wrote:<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:
12.0pt'><br>
<br>
<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'><span style='orphans: 2;
widows: 2;-webkit-border-horizontal-spacing: 0px;-webkit-border-vertical-spacing: 0px;
-webkit-text-decorations-in-effect: none;-webkit-text-size-adjust: auto;
-webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;word-spacing:0px'>Not true; that is Standard
Breton, which is a fabrication with little authentic basis in the spoken
language.<u1:p></u1:p></span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 face="Charis SIL"><span lang=EN-GB
style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Charis SIL"'>Even though this is not
indicated in the main standard grammars, many dialects of Breton do in fact
have a three-way opposition (the second term –<i><span style='font-style:italic'>éw</span></i><span
class=apple-converted-space> </span>found in a relatively small number of
words).</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

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<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:
12.0pt'><o:p> </o:p></span></font></p>

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