<html><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html charset=utf-8"></head><body style="word-wrap: break-word; -webkit-nbsp-mode: space; -webkit-line-break: after-white-space;" class="">In defence of the suffix -el Dr George has drawn attention to<div class="">bretholl ‘sleeve’ in OCV and hudol ‘magician’ in OCV.</div><div class="">One could also add ebol, ebal ‘colt’.</div><div class="">All three words are substantives and they are constructed with the</div><div class="">OC suffix -ol which became -el or -al in Middle Cornish.</div><div class="">One should however, note that in all three cases the -ol, -el, -al is a bound morpheme.</div><div class="">It is part of the word and although historically a suffix, it is no longer felt to be such.</div><div class="">The fact remains that there is no attested example of a productive suffix -el or -al</div><div class="">anywhere in traditional Cornish.</div><div class="">It is therefore legitimate to reject any neologism in the revived language which</div><div class="">uses such a suffix. </div><div class="">The productive adjectival suffixes in traditonal Cornish are 1. -ek, -ak; 2 -us, -ys.</div><div class="">Any newly constructed word containing adjectival -el must, I believe, be considered</div><div class="">spurious and should be rejected.</div><div class=""><br class=""></div><div class="">As footnote I should like to point out that there was a good reason for Cornish to</div><div class="">discontinue -ol, -el as a productive suffix.</div><div class="">The -l- in the suffix (which until the eleventh century bore the stress in disyllables)</div><div class="">had the effect of strengthening a lenis stop (d or g) for example to a fortis.</div><div class="">It is for this reason that we have skyans but skentyl and drog but drockoleth < *drockyl.</div><div class="">The same strengthening function can be seen in Cornish dialect fackle ‘inflammation’,</div><div class="">where Welsh has ffagl < Latin facula. It may also account for such forms as</div><div class="">capel ‘cable’, tropel ‘trouble’ and popel ‘people’. This strengthening did not occur in either</div><div class="">Welsh or Breton.</div><div class="">Since the suffix -ol appears to have had a distorting effect on the relationship</div><div class="">between the simplex and the derived adjective, it is not astonishing that Cornish </div><div class="">discontinued -ol, -el as a productive suffix.</div><div class=""><br class=""></div><div class="">It should also be noted in this context that the word scrisel ‘poster’, a calque on </div><div class="">Breton skritell is wrongly formed. If the word had existed in Cornish, the -l of the suffix</div><div class="">would have prevented assibilation of the previous stop and the word would have</div><div class="">appeared as *scridel. </div><div class=""><br class=""></div><div class="">That l in the next syllable blocked assibilation of -d- can clearly be seen, inter alia,</div><div class="">from Nadelek, scudell and padell.</div><div class="">  </div><div class=""><br class=""></div><div class="">Nicholas</div><div class=""><br class=""><div><blockquote type="cite" class=""><div class="">On 2 Mar 2017, at 18:55, Clive Baker <<a href="mailto:clive.baker@gmail.com" class="">clive.baker@gmail.com</a>> wrote:</div><br class="Apple-interchange-newline"><div class=""><div dir="ltr" class=""><div class="">thanks for that enlightening list Nicholas...and Ray....this very much  reinforces your booklet of errors</div><div class="">kemereugh wyth</div><div class="">Clive</div></div><div class="gmail_extra"><br class=""><div class="gmail_quote">On Thu, Mar 2, 2017 at 9:29 AM, Nicholas Williams <span dir="ltr" class=""><<a href="mailto:njawilliams@gmail.com" target="_blank" class="">njawilliams@gmail.com</a>></span> wrote:<br class=""><blockquote class="gmail_quote" style="margin:0 0 0 .8ex;border-left:1px #ccc solid;padding-left:1ex"><div style="word-wrap:break-word" class="">There is some debate at the moment concerning these suffixes. The adventitious suffix *-el is wholly unattested in traditional Cornish<div class="">and in my view is better avoided. </div><div class="">I recently sent the following to the Panel Whythrans (Research Panel). I am sure the list could enlarged with further examples. Nonetheless</div><div class="">it may be of general interest.</div><div class=""><br class=""></div><div class=""><br class=""></div><div class="">Nicholas Williams</div><div class=""><br class=""></div><div class=""><br class=""></div><div class=""><div style="margin:0px;text-align:center;line-height:normal" class=""><span class="">The suffixes -<b class="">ek</b> and -<b class="">el</b> in the Cornish texts</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:center;line-height:normal;min-height:17px" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""></span><br class=""></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">   </span>Briefly speaking the suffix -<i class="">ek</i> is well attested in the texts, where it has several functions. The adjectival suffix -<i class="">yl</i> is attested in one word. The suffix -<i class="">el</i> for instruments occurs once, where it is written -<i class="">al</i>. An adjectival suffix -<i class="">el</i> is wholly absent from traditional Cornish of all periods. I cite one attestation for each form below, though there may in many cases be further attestations.</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal;min-height:14px" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""></span><br class=""></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><b class="">-ek</b></span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class="">The suffix -<b class="">ek</b>, (Later -<b class="">ak</b>) is used to create adjectives, mostly from nouns. Examples include:</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal;min-height:14px" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""></span><br class=""></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">        </span><b class="">anhethek</b>, <b class="">anhethak</b> ‘chronic’ BM 1853, BK 1013; cf. <i class="">hethy</i> ‘to cease’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">       </span><b class="">awherak</b> ‘anxious’ BK 778, 2336 < <i class="">awher</i> ‘anxiety’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">     </span><b class="">barthusek</b>, <b class="">marthojak</b> ‘miraculous’ PC 1177, BK 250 < <i class="">marthus</i> ‘wonder’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">   </span><b class="">bohosek</b>, <b class="">bohosak</b> ‘poor’ BM 438, BK 773 < <i class="">bohes</i> ‘little amount’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap"> </span><b class="">cafalek</b> for *<i class="">cavylek</i> ‘tendentious’ OM 2784 < *<i class="">cavyl</i></span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">        </span><b class="">clamderak</b> ‘faint’ BK 2333 < <i class="">clamder</i> ‘fainting’ </span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap"> </span><b class="">clovorak</b> ‘leprous’ BK 179 < *<i class="">clavor</i> ‘leprosy’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">        </span><b class="">colonnek</b>, <b class="">colodnak</b> (<i class="">kylednak</i>) ‘courageous, hearty, sincere’ BM 32, AB: 150c < <i class="">colon</i> ‘heart’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">      </span><b class="">galarak</b> ‘sorrowful’ BK 721 < <i class="">galar</i> ‘sorrow’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">  </span><b class="">gallosek</b>, <b class="">gallogek, gallosak</b> ‘powerful’ OM 1494, PC 2376, BK 248 < <i class="">gallos</i> ‘power’ </span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">        </span><b class="">gowek</b>, <b class="">gowak</b> ‘deceitful, mendacious’ PC 55, TH 8 < gow </span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">     </span><b class="">grajak</b> ‘thankful, grateful’ BK 368 < <i class="">gras</i> ‘thanks’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">   </span><b class="">guyryak</b> ‘privileged’ BK 2237 < <i class="">gwyr</i>, <i class="">gwir</i> ‘right’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">      </span><b class="">hyrethek</b>,<b class=""> hyrethak</b> ‘wistful’ BM 4526, BK 2751 < <i class="">hyreth</i> ‘longing’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">       </span><b class="">kabmlagadzhak</b> ‘crosseyed’ AB: 155b < <i class="">cabm</i>+<i class="">lagas</i></span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><i class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">        </span></i><b class="">kabmsgudhak</b> ‘round-shouldered’ AB: 63b < <i class="">cabm</i>+<i class="">scoodh</i></span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">     </span><b class="">kerengeak</b> ‘loving’ TH 2a < <i class="">kerenge</i> ‘love’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">    </span><b class="">kevrennek</b>, <b class="">kevrannak</b>, <b class="">keverennak</b> ‘paricipating’ TH 35, TH 51a, TH 12a < <i class="">kevran</i> ‘share’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">   </span><b class="">lyastrosak</b> ‘having many feet’ BK 1829 < <i class="">lyas</i> ‘many’ + <i class="">troos</i> ‘foot’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap"> </span><b class="">methek</b> ‘ashamed’ TH 8a < <i class="">meth</i> ‘shame’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">        </span><b class="">molothek, mollothak</b> ‘accursed’ PA 47c, BK 3258 < <i class="">mollath</i> ‘curse’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">     </span><b class="">morethek</b> ‘sorrowful’ PA 66d < <i class="">moreth</i> ‘sorrow’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">        </span><b class="">morthelek</b> ‘hammered, dinted’ PC 2731 < <i class="">morthol</i> ‘hammer’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">      </span><b class="">mosek</b> ‘stinking, fetid’ BM 2131; cf. <i class="">mosegy</i> ‘to stink’ </span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">    </span><b class="">othomek</b>, <b class="">othommek</b> ‘needy’ BK 2307, RD 2377 < <i class="">othem</i> ‘need’ </span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">        </span><b class="">ownek</b> ‘fearful’ TH 52a < <i class="">own</i> ‘fear’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">  </span><b class="">peswartrosek</b>, <b class="">peswartrosak</b> ‘four-footed’ TH 2, BK 1398 < <i class="">peswar</i>+<i class="">troos</i> ‘foot’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">     </span><b class="">podrek</b> ‘rotten’ BM 3048; cf. <i class="">poder</i> ‘rottenness’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap"> </span><b class="">podrethek</b> ‘rotten, corrupt’ BM 541; cf. <i class="">podrethes</i> ‘corruption’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">  </span><b class="">prederak</b> ‘full of care’ BK 779 < <i class="">preder</i> ‘thought, care’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">      </span><b class="">rajak</b> ‘gracious’ BK 362 < <b class="">ras</b> ‘grace’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">        </span><b class="">sevyllyake</b> ‘standing, fixed’ CW 458 < <i class="">sevel</i> ‘to stand’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">       </span><b class="">skiansek</b> ‘intelligent’ BM 377 < <i class="">skians</i> ‘knowlege’ </span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">      </span><b class="">truethek</b> ‘pitiful’ BM 2152 < <i class="">trueth</i> ‘pity’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">   </span><b class="">tyllak</b> ‘ragged’ BK 2289 < tell ‘holes’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">     </span><b class="">whansek, whansack</b> ‘desirous’ PC 37, CW 1794 < <i class="">whans</i> ‘desire’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap"> </span><b class="">ydnlagadzhak</b> ‘one-eyed’ AB: 93c < <i class="">udn</i>+<i class="">lagas</i></span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal;min-height:14px" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""></span><br class=""></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class="">-<b class="">ek, -ak</b> is sometimes used to reinforce a previously existing adjective:</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal;min-height:14px" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""></span><br class=""></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap"> </span><b class="">bewek</b> ‘lively TH 41 < <i class="">bew</i> ‘alive’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">      </span><b class="">bothorak</b> ‘deaf’ BK 177 < <i class="">bothar</i> ‘deaf’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">       </span><b class="">cosolak</b> ‘peaceful, at rest’ BK 2471 < <i class="">cosel</i> ‘peaceful’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">       </span><b class="">evrethek</b> ‘cripple’ PC 2009 < <i class="">evreth</i> ‘cripple’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">        </span><b class="">lowenek<i class="">,</i> lowenake</b> ‘joyful’ PA 245d, CW 546< <i class="">lowen</i> ‘happy’ </span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal;min-height:14px" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""></span><br class=""></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class="">Formations in -<b class="">ek</b> are frequently nouns or adjectives used as substantives:</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal;min-height:14px" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""></span><br class=""></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">       </span><b class="">cronek</b> ‘toad’ PA 47d < <i class="">crohen</i> ‘skin’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap"> </span><b class="">crothak</b> ‘cripple’ BK 3254 < <i class="">croth</i> ‘crutch’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">   </span><b class="">gowek</b> ‘liar’, <i class="">pl</i>. <b class="">gowygyon</b> RD 1510 (cf. <i class="">gowek</i> ‘mendacious’ above)</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">   </span><b class="">guarthek</b> OM 1065 (cf. Welsh <i class="">gwartheg</i> ‘cattle’)</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">      </span><b class="">govenek</b> ‘hope’ OM 453 < <i class="">govyn</i> ‘to ask, to wish’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">      </span><b class="">lagasek</b>, <b class="">lagajak</b> ‘sharp-eyed person’ BM 1018, BK 367 < lagas ‘eye’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">   </span><b class="">ownek</b> ‘coward’ PA 77d (cf. <i class="">ownek</i> ‘fearful’ above)</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">       </span><b class="">kentrevek</b>, <b class="">kentrevak</b> ‘neighbour’ OM 2231, TH 29 < <i class="">ken</i>+<i class="">trev</i>+<i class="">ek</i></span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">  </span><b class="">lostek</b> ‘fox’ AB: 298b < <i class="">lost</i> ‘tail’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">  </span><b class="">marhek</b>, <b class="">marrak</b> ‘knight, horseman’, pl. <b class="">marregyon</b>, <b class="">marrogyon</b> PA 190b, BK 1514 < <b class="">margh</b> <span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">               </span>‘horse’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap"> </span><b class="">perhennak</b> ‘owner’ BM 16 < <i class="">perhen</i> ‘owner’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">     </span><b class="">plosek</b> ‘dirty person’ PC 451 < <i class="">plos</i> ‘dirt’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">   </span><b class="">poddrak</b> ‘rotten fellow’ NBoson < <i class="">poder ‘</i>rot<i class="">’</i></span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">   </span><b class="">sethek</b> ‘tribunal’ PA 77c < <i class="">esetha</i> ‘to sit’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">   </span><b class="">tasek</b>, <b class="">tasak</b> ‘patron’ BM 2852, BK 1972 < <i class="">tas</i> ‘father’</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">  </span><b class="">tellek </b>‘ragged person’ BM 3492, < <i class="">tell</i> ‘holes’ (cf. <i class="">tyllak</i> above).</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal;min-height:14px" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""></span><br class=""></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class="">-<b class="">ek</b> (-<b class="">ak</b>, -<b class="">ok</b>) is also used to form the names of languages:</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal;min-height:14px" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""></span><br class=""></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">       </span><b class="">Cornowok</b>, <b class="">Carnoack</b>, <b class="">Kernuak</b> ‘Cornish’ Exeter Consistory Court, NBoson, JBoson</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap"> </span><b class="">Frenkock</b> ‘French’ NBoson</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">  </span><b class="">Kembrack</b> ‘Welsh’ Oliver Pender</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">    </span><b class="">Sousenak</b> ‘English’ NBoson</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal;min-height:14px" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""></span><br class=""></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class="">The suffix -<b class="">yl</b> is found once only in traditional Cornish, namely in the adjective:</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal;min-height:14px" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""></span><br class=""></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">        </span><b class="">skentyll</b> PA 8a. </span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal;min-height:14px" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""></span><br class=""></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class="">Notice that the formation <i class="">skentyl</i> < <i class="">skiant</i>+<i class="">yl</i> is old and that the <i class="">l</i> of the suffix blocked assibilation in the root; thus <i class="">skyans</i>, <i class="">skyansek</i> but <i class="">skentyll</i>, <i class="">skyantoleth</i>. In the same way the <i class="">l</i> in the suffix -<i class="">oleth</i> fortified a lenis <i class="">g</i> to <i class="">k</i> in <i class="">drocoleth</i>, <i class="">drockoleth</i> ‘wickedness’ < <i class="">drog</i> ‘evil’. The suffix -<i class="">oleth</i>, -<i class="">olath</i> is also seen in <i class="">sansolath</i> ‘sanctity’ BM 137, but *<i class="">sansyl</i> is unattested. Similarly <i class="">flogholeth</i> ‘childhood, children’ OM 2838 is attested but *<i class="">floghyl</i> is not. The words *<i class="">marwyl</i> ‘mortal’ was invented by Nance. </span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal;min-height:14px" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""></span><br class=""></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class="">The nominal suffix -<b class="">al</b> < -<b class="">el</b> for tools and pieces of equipment is attested only in:</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal;min-height:14px" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""></span><br class=""></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">      </span><b class="">Guinzal</b> ‘Flabellum’ [winnowing fan] AB: 60a.</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal;min-height:14px" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""></span><br class=""></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class="">The adjectival suffix -<b class="">us</b> is fairly common though it is frequently written as -<i class="">ys</i>, -<i class="">es</i> or -<i class="">as</i>:</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal;min-height:14px" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""></span><br class=""></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">       </span><b class="">ongrassyas</b>, <b class="">ongrassyes</b> ‘graceless’ BM 1282, 1596</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">    </span><b class="">gloryus</b>, <b class="">gloryes</b> ‘glorious’ BK 2523, CW 27</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">  </span><b class="">grassyes</b> ‘gracious’ BM 4196</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span style="font-kerning:none" class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">       </span><b class="">gwyus</b> ‘winding, devious’, in comparative <b class="">the weusa</b> TH 17a</span></div><div style="margin:0px;text-align:justify;line-height:normal" class=""><span class=""><span class="m_-5180840197601250664Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre-wrap">       </span><b class="">prederys</b> ‘anxious’ TH 54.</span></div></div></div><br class="">______________________________<wbr class="">_________________<br class="">
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