[Spellyans] Final -dh, final -th, final -v, final -f

Daniel Prohaska daniel at ryan-prohaska.com
Sat Aug 11 14:59:48 BST 2012

Thanks for these, Nicholas…

On Aug 11, 2012, at 11:55 AM, Nicholas Williams wrote:

> As far as final unstressed g and b is concerned we have a number of further 
> examples:
> dyag TH
> nownsag TH
> methag TH
> bothorag BK
> golag BK (alongside golak)
> yddrag, eddrag CW
> kronag Lh
> rowndenab BK.
> Most of these are probably not significant statistically. Marreg and gorthyb certainly are.
> I dealt with gorryb in CT. One expects marhek and gorthyp and indeed marrek is commoner than marreg.
> There is a possible explanation for the apparent anomalous phonology of marreg and gorryb.
> Both marreg and gorryb have indeed got a voiced final, but they are preceded in the same syllable by a devoiced r (it might be in the preceding syllable, depending how one syllabifies). I assume that in these two words the devoicing in the medial rh caused a dissimilation to a voiceless segment in final position. Schematically marxegh > marhegh > marheg where gh is a voiceless g i.e. k.
> The same would also hold for gorthyb: gorTyph > gorhybh  > gorhyb (where T = the voiceless interdental fricative and bh is a voiceless b i.e. p).
> Alongside eddrag, yddrag one finds edrack in CW. 
> There is in the texts also a form edrege from edregeth. 
> I have always assumed yddrag of CW to be a contamination of edrek and edrege.
> If unstressed -eg, -ag, -yg were allophonic variants of -ek, -ak, -yk,
> we would expect occasional examples of *bohosag, *colonneg, *dewtheg, *Frynkeg, *galoseg, *hiretheg, *kentrevag, *Kernowag, *lagasag, *lowenek, *Meryaseg, *moretheg, *metheg 'ashamed', *Nadelag, *othommeg, *Sowsnag, *uthyg, etc. None occurs. 
> 'Sweet' is either whek, wheg, wheag or wheage. 'Harsh' is always anwhek or anwek. Notice that the scribe of BK writes: Anwek lowan ove suer BK 1508, where the final segment in the verb ove is [v] not [f]. He could just have well written *anweg, but he didn't. And anwek occurs in the previous line. There are no examples of wheg in BK, but TH is contemporaneous with the manuscript of BK.
> We thus have
> wheg TH 2, 27a x 2, 28
> anwek BK 1506, 1507.
> Similarly in BK we have
> mab BK 5, 170, 226, 233, 236, 240, 264, 308, 718, 781, 789, 824, 1056, etc.
> katap BK 2018, 2572, 2833.
> There is further evidence that the opposition stressed vowel + voiced obstruent ~ unstressed vowel + voiceless obstruent operates right across the system. The name David has a final d, because it is a medieval borrowing from English. There is also an earlier variant Davith (cf. W Dafydd). 
> Twice the scribe of OM writes Davit for David, as though he found it difficult to voice the final d after an unstressed vowel. Similarly Tregear writes an profet Dauit TH 1.
> On the other hand the English borrowing bad is always spelt bad, or badd. The only exception is at RD 1885 where badt is made to give an eye-rhyme with pilat.
> Nicholas
> On 11 Aug 2012, at 01:50, Daniel Prohaska wrote:
>> OM ‹wortheb› (1x)
>> BM ‹gorthyb› (2x), BK (7x)
>> BK ‹worthyb› (7x) 
>> TH ‹gurryb› (1x), CW (3x)
>> TH ‹gorrub› (1x)
>> SA ‹orybe› (1x)
>> SA ‹worryb› (1x)
>> CW ‹gorthib› (1x)
>> CW ‹worthib› (1x)
>> Pryce ‹gorib› (2x)
>> Pryce ‹wotheb› (2x)
>> Pryce ‹wortheb› (1x)
>> as opposed to:
>> PA ‹worȝyp› (1x)
>> PC ‹gorthyp› (2x), Pryce (2x)
>> PC ‹worthyp› (4x), RD (2x)
>> BK ‹gorthyp› (1x)
>> Th ‹gurryp› (1x)
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