[Spellyans] Pronuncaiation

Janice Lobb janicelobb at gmail.com
Wed Jan 23 18:38:44 GMT 2013

You say that "gwellhe" is unattested, but maybe one could use "crefhe"
instead, which Boson did use in "Nebes geryow adro dhe Gernowek"

On Wed, Jan 23, 2013 at 11:06 AM, Nicholas Williams
<njawilliams at gmail.com>wrote:

> Incidentally the word *freth* is used by many to mean 'fluent' in a
> language. This goes back to Nance and is not really legitimate, I think. I
> have collected the following examples of *freth* in the texts:
> *In vn stevya oll y eth bys yn pylat o Iustis vn ezow zozo yn **freth**yndelma a leuerys
> *‘Hurryingly they all went to Pilate who was a justice; a Jew
> emphatically spoke thus to him…’ PA 239ab
> *lyuyreugh whet pan theugh mar **freth** pyv a whyleugh* ‘say again,
> since you come so eagerly, who is it you seek’ PC 1115-16
> *otte lour kunys gyne whythyns lemmyn pup yn **freth** neb na whytho
> grens fannye* ‘here I have a lot of firewood; now let everyone blow
> assiduously. Let him who doesn’t blow fan’ PC 1241-43
> *syr doctors rys yv theugh whet bys ma fo gurys an dywet certan gynen
> laufurye rak an harlot a geus **freth* ‘sir doctors you must still, until
> the end be achieved, indeed travel with us, for the scoundrel talks glibly’
> PC 1829-32
> *myl weth a uyth an dyweth me a’n te re synt iouyn ha hakere es an
> dalleth rak henna tus ervys **freth** gor th’y wythe atermyn* ‘a thousand
> times worse, I swear by St Jovyn, and nastier than the beginning, therefore
> send alert armed men to guard him in time’ RD 348-52
> *duen scon in ban then meneth ha why covsugh arluth **freth** dotho agis
> galarov* ‘let us go up the mountain soon and you, vigorous lord, tell him
> your grief’ BM 2533-35
> *Gwayt bos war a’th lavarow, fatel rylly gorthyby, rag **fregh** ew eff *‘Take
> care of your words, how you will answer, for he is impetuous’ BK 555-57
> *Bethans mar **freth** del vynho, nu’m bues owne a gows orto gans gweras
> Christ, arluth nef *‘Let him be as insistent as he wishes, I am not
> afraid to speak to him with the help of Christ, Lord of heaven’ BK 558-60
> *pur welcum ough genan ny del on guer **freth** in casow* ‘you are very
> welcome here with us as we are effective men in battles’ BK 1363-64
> *Me ew myghtern in Island, maga **freth** avel turand, corf ankengy ha
> dylys* ‘I am king in Iceland, as impetuous as a tyrant, a grim and
> unrestrained man’ BK 1449-52
> *Fers of ha **freth**. Penagel a’m sorr gans cam, ef a’n gevyth tebal-lam*‘I am fierce and impetuous. Whoever angers me wrongly will get a nasty
> shock’ BK 1473-75
> *Der gras Christ a’gen pernas, me, Modreth, a lever **freth**: Arthur a
> vyth guarthevyas ha’y yskerans ef a feth* ‘By the grace of Christ who
> redeemed us, I Modred, speak emphatically: Arthur will be victorious and he
> will vainquish his foes’ BK 1486-89
> *Hail, arluth fers, **freth** gans cletha!* ‘Hail, fierce lord, vigorous
> with the sword!’ BK 1771-72
> *Hayl, arluth **freth** ha gallasak! *‘Hail, impetuous, powerful lord!’
> BK 1780-81
> *Kynth ewa **freth**, settyough e coyt (elhas, soweth!) in dan e doyt *‘Though
> he be bold, set it quick (alas and alack) under his plate’ BK 1821-24
> *Freth** y feth gweregys, mar peth rys dos the henna, ol the’th desyer*‘He will be vigorously helped, if it is necessary to come to that, all
> according to your desire’ BK 1846-48
> *Kyn fe mar **freth** du Halan an vlethan i’n kynsa deyth, me a gows war
> mab Malan ha ny’n sparya’, wor ow fayth!* ‘Though he be so bold at the
> Calends of the year, the first day, I will speak by the son of the Devil,
> that I shall not spare him, upon my faith!’ BK 1880-84
> *Lowena this, myghtern **freth**, gwerror fers ha galosak!* ‘Joy to you,
> bold king, a fierce and powerful warrior!’ BK 1996-97
> *The gyrryow **freth** in tyhogal a’th set in nans* ‘Your impudent words
> in truth will bring you down’ BK 2148-50
> *An trubut pan ve tochys, e worthyb o tyn ha **freth** hag ef garaw*‘When the tribute was discussed, his answer was sharp and impudent and he
> was grim’ BK 2264-64
> *Arthor Gornow, myghtern **freth**, a vyn orta syngy cas* ‘Arthur the
> Cornishman, a truculent king, will join battle with him’ BK 2502-03
> *Lowena thu’m arluth **freth**, gallosak drys tus an bys!* ‘Joy to my
> impetuous lord, powerful beyond all men in the world!’ BK 2554-55.
> Freth seems to mean 'assiduous, impetuous, eager, bold, impudent' rather
> than 'fluent'.
> I recently got an email about Tregedna in which it spoke of *tus nebes
> freth* i.e. fairly fluent people. Unfortunately *freth* doesn't mean
> 'fluent' and *tus* means
> 'men' not 'people'. The email also used the verb **gwellhe* of improving
> one's Cornish. *Gwellhe* is unattested. The word for 'to improve' in
> Cornish is *amendya*:
> *mar ny wreth **ymamendye** ef a wra tyn the punssye may leuerry ogh ellas
> * ‘if you do not improve, he will severely punish you, so that you will
> cry Oh, alas!’ OM 1526-28
> *hethe the’n dor my a’d pys scon ef a vyth **amendyys** my a’n scarf yn
> ta whare* ‘hand it down, I beg you; it will soon be set to right’ OM
> 2521-23
> *mara mynne **amendye** guel vye y thylyfrye hep drocoleth thyworthy’n*‘if he is willing to improve, it would be best for us to release him
> without harm from us’ PC 1862-64
> *ha mar ny fyn dynaghe y gow ha mercy crye hag **amendye** y treyson gans
> spern guregh y curene *‘and if he does not deny his lies and beg for
> mercy and amend his treason, crown him with thorns’ PC 2060-63
> *vnwyth a caffen hansell me a russa **amendie** *‘if I could only have
> breakfast, I should improve’ BM 110-11
> *yth ew gwris da aga rebukya, may hallans bos methek ha kemeras sham aga
> fawtys ha dre rebukys **amendia** aga lewde bewnans *‘it is well done to
> rebuke them, that they may be embarrassed and be ashamed of their faults
> and through rebukes amend their wicked life’ TH 29a
> *Christ re’th **amendya** der ras ha roy thys gwel esethva* ‘May Christ
> improve you by his grace and give you a better place to sit’ BK 396-97.
> *kebmys pehas es in byes gwrres gans tues heb **amendya** mathew dew an
> tas serrys bythquath gwyell mabe dean omma* ‘so much sin has been
> committed by men in the world without improvement, that God the Father is
> angry ever to have created manking here’ CW 2146-49
> *kemmys pehas es in beyse ha nyng es tam **amendya** mayth ew an tas dew
> serrys gans oll pobell an bys ma* ‘there is so much sin in the world and
> there is not a jot of improvement that God the Father with all the people
> of this world’ CW 2335-38
> *rag henna theth cregye me ny vannaf moy es kye na **mendya** ny venyn ny
> awoos theth gyrryau wastys* ‘therefore I will not believe you any more
> than a dog, nor will we improve for all your wasted words’ CW 2359-62
> *hag eddrag thothef yma bythquath mabe dean tha vos gwryes rag henna
> gwrewgh **amendya* ‘and he regrets that ever mankind was created,
> therefore improve’ CW 2339-41.
> Starting with Nance revivalists have been unhappy about borrowings from
> English in Cornish. This unhappiness, in my view, is unjustified. In the
> first place English borrowings have been in Cornish since the OC period,
> e.g. *robbior*, *lappior*, *redior*, *yurl*, *hule* 'owl', *herring*'herring' whence
> *hernen*. Indeed the presence of borrowings from Old English in OCV
> enabled Lhuyd to determine that the glossary was Cornish rather than Breton
> or Welsh. In the second place many borrowings go unnoticed, e.g. *trailya*'to turn',
> *sordya* 'to arouse', *dyghtya* 'to treat, to prepare', *gocky*'foolish'. In the third place ME borrowings are a distinctive feature of
> Middle Cornish from PA onwards. Here is the second stanza of PA
> Suel a vynno bos sylwys
> golsowens ow lauarow
> a ihesu del ve helheys
> war an bys avel carow
> Ragon menough *rebekis*
> ha *dyspresijs* yn harow
> yn growys gans kentrow *fastis*
> *peynys* bys pan ve marow
> There are four borrowed verbs in the second distich: *rebukya*, *dyspresya
> *, *fastya* and *painya*.
> Here is the first stanza of Origo Mundi:
> En tas a nef y'm gylwyr;
> *formyer* pup tra a vyt gvrys
> Onan ha try on yn gvyr
> en tas ha’n map ha’n spyrys
> ha hethyv me a *thesyr*
> dre ov *grath* dalleth an beys
> y lauaraf nef ha tyr
> bethens *formyys* orth ov brys
> *Formyer* 'creator', *desirya* 'to desire', *grath* (*grâss*) 'grace' and
> *formya* 'to create' are all borrowings from Middle English.
> Much revived Cornish looks so unlike real Cornish precisely because it
> avoids borrowings. Caradar understood this and used *mona* 'money', not *
> arhans*, which means 'silver'. He called a shop *shoppa*, not **gwerthjy*.
> He didn't as far as I am aware use **dewotty* but *tavern*, etc.
> If we are reviving a language without a continuous tradition of native
> speakers and without a sizeable community of people for whom Cornish is a
> first language, we should, I believe, revive the language as we find it,
> not as we would wish it to be. Otherwise we are conlanging.
> Nicholas
> On 22 Jan 2013, at 17:50, Ken MacKinnon wrote:
> *I think that garow / marow is an effective rhyming contrast.  I should
> have thought of garow as I have been having a discussion with Craig only
> today about this word.*
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