[Spellyans] Pronuncaiation

Nicholas Williams njawilliams at gmail.com
Wed Jan 23 20:22:00 GMT 2013

Crefhe means 'to strengthen' not 'to improve'.
The two are not exact synonyms.
Gwellhe may be attested in the following from Beunans Meriasek:

me a leuer the plemyk thywy nowothov nowyth guelheys yv ages nygys ‘I will speak bluntly to you of new news: your business has been ?improved’ BM 3314-16.

Though Stokes thought guelheys was for gwelys 'seen'. The context is obscure to me.

Crefhe seems to have an earlier variant creffya:

Christ a rug e confirmia the vos e corf ef, rag creffya agen corfow ny 'Christ confirmed that it was his body, to strengthen our bodies' SA 63a.

The ordinary way of saying 'to improve' is amendya:

mar ny wreth ymamendye ef a wra tyn the punssye may leuerry ogh ellas ‘if you do not improve, he will severely punish you, so that you will cry Oh, alas!’ OM 1526-28
hethe the’n dor my a’d pys scon ef a vyth amendyys my a’n scarf yn ta whare ‘hand it down, I beg you; it will soon be set to right’ OM 2521-23
mara mynne amendye guel vye y thylyfrye hep drocoleth thyworthy’n ‘if he is willing to improve, it would be best for us to release him without harm from us’ PC 1862-64
ha mar ny fyn dynaghe y gow ha mercy crye hag amendye y treyson gans spern guregh y curene ‘and if he does not deny his lies and beg for mercy and amend his treason, crown him with thorns’ PC 2060-63
vnwyth a caffen hansell me a russa amendie ‘if I could only have breakfast, I should improve’ BM 110-11
yth ew gwris da aga rebukya, may hallans bos methek ha kemeras sham aga fawtys ha dre rebukys amendia aga lewde bewnans ‘it is well done to rebuke them, that they may be embarrassed and be ashamed of their faults and through rebukes amend their wicked life’ TH 29a
Christ re’th amendya der ras ha roy thys gwel esethva ‘May Christ improve you by his grace and give you a better place to sit’ BK 396-97.
kebmys pehas es in byes gwrres gans tues heb amendya mathew dew an tas serrys bythquath gwyell mabe dean omma ‘so much sin has been committed by men in the world without improvement, that God the Father is angry ever to have created manking here’ CW 2146-49
kemmys pehas es in beyse ha nyng es tam amendya mayth ew an tas dew serrys gans oll pobell an bys ma ‘there is so much sin in the world and there is not a jot of improvement that God the Father with all the people of this world’ CW 2335-38
rag henna theth cregye me ny vannaf moy es kye na mendya ny venyn ny awoos theth gyrryau wastys ‘therefore I will not believe you any more than a dog, nor will we improve for all your wasted words’ CW 2359-62
hag eddrag thothef yma bythquath mabe dean tha vos gwryes rag henna gwrewgh amendya ‘and he regrets that ever mankind was created, therefore improve’ CW 2339-41.


On 23 Jan 2013, at 18:38, Janice Lobb wrote:

> You say that "gwellhe" is unattested, but maybe one could use "crefhe" instead, which Boson did use in "Nebes geryow adro dhe Gernowek"   

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