[Spellyans] Further notes on the SWF dictionary

Nicholas Williams njawilliams at gmail.com
Mon Apr 2 11:37:09 BST 2018

The dictionary give Albani Albania, Bulgari ‘Bulgaria’, Romani ‘Romania’, Russi ‘Russia’, none of which is attested. They seem, however, to omit Arabi ‘Arabia’ which is attested in two different texts:

ef a gyf yn araby yn mount tabor guelynny OM1929-30
David the araby ke the veneth tabor OM 1943-44
Rex Araby ha Saba BK 2717.

The dictionary does not include a name for Syria though Cornish forms of the name are attested in two texts:

Me, Evander, duk Syry, a’n dyelha BK 2693-94
Ha e Fauge geeth der ol Syrya Rowe.

The dictionary gives Brython ‘Briton’ and curiously in its phonetic rendering suggests that the stressed vowel may be pronounced [e]. Brython is unattested. The only occurrence of the word are in Lhuyd. It is spelt Brethon AB: 242c and Lhuyd cites it as a plural. Moreover the obelus before it indicates that it was obsolete by Lhuyd’s day. Curiously the dictionary does not give the adjective Brythonek ‘British’ which is attested in Lhuyd’s own Cornish thirteen times as Brethonek.

For Belgium the dictionary gives Pow Belg. Belg, Belges, belgek are all given [g] as a final segment. The only evidence in traditional Cornish for any of these is: 

Mar pethum’ Francan-belgan me ra bose
Pocar dr’ u Sousen-Curnow vith anar vrause NBoson.

Francan-belgan is Boson’s Cornish for ‘Franco-Belgian’. According to the OED the first attestation of the English word Belgian was in 1571. The word always had [dȝ] not [g]. Belg, Belges and belgek should almost certainly therefore be spelt with <j> rather than <g>. 

The dictionary for Czech language give Checkek. This name appears to have been formed as a result of the dictionaries rule that glossonyms end in -ek. Note however Latin Latin language and Greka Greek language in the dictionary, without any suffix. Check for both the ethnonym and the language might have been preferable.

The dictionary cites Inglond from TH for England. They do not, however, give Skotland for ‘Scotland’, though the name is attested three times:

Augel, myghtern in Scotland BK1280
a Thowr Hombyr the Scotland BK 3237
myghtern Scotland, Augel ha Syr Gawen ew maraw BK 3284-85.

Island ‘Iceland’ is attested in BK: Me ew myghtern in Island BK 1450. The dictionary, however, gives only the recent invention, *Rewenys.

The dictionary cite Gres ‘Greece’ which occurs in BK. They also, however, give Pow Grek which is an invention.

auncient, auncyent ‘ancient’ is attested 20 times in TH. The word does not appear to be in the SWF dictionary.

Ankow with an initial capital letter is cited in the dictionary as meaning ‘Death personified.’ This does not seem to be entirely true. Ankow is used for Death personified as is clear from the following examples:

ancow sur yw dyuythys scon thy’mmo vy Death indeed has come quickly to me RD 2208-09
me yw cannas dew ankow I am the messenger of God, Death CW 985 
ankow y whon theis mur grace Death, I am very grateful to you CW 1999Curnooack. 
Ha eue a dael bose Ankou e hunnen a vedden pedeere dr’ erama creege hedna tho bose gweer And it must be Death himself who will think that I believe that to be true NBoson
tha rimah erra zetha en Pow reb Ankow, ma Gollow dereves man for those who sat in land by Death a light has risen up Rowe

More frequently, however, ancow means death without any personification:

na moy sconye ny vynnas rag own cafos y ancow he did not wish to refuse any more for fear of suffering his death.PA 174d
rag own cafos y ankow dworennos yn pur breua ef eth zen corff o marow for fear of suffering death very privately he went at nightfall the the body which was dead PA 234bc
mar tha yv genef a brys merwel kyns dos drok ancow I am as willing to die early before an evil death comes OM 1229-30
ahys yma a’y groweth awos gotheuel ancow she is lying at length having suffered death OM 2759-60
rak yma yn ov enef trystyns fast bys yn ancow for there is sorrow fixed in my soul unto death PC 1022-23
mal yv gynef y gaffos rak y worre th’y ancow I am anxious to get him to put him to death PC 2068-69
pur oges yv the ancow very near is your death PC 2660
mars ywe lyddrys a’n beth why a’s byth ages ancow if he has been stolen who will suffer your death RD 611-12
ha mar ny wreth the ancow me a vyth by god ys pes and if you do not I shall have your death by God’s peace RD 635-36
te a vyth dampnys ractha ha subiect ankowe dretha you will be condemned and subject to death through it CW 378-89

Ankow is used for the personification of Death; but ancow also means death in a general sense.

Anterya ‘to bury, to inter’ is attested: An arlythy, kepar dell goyth, a the deffry pen ow arloyth th’y anterya, gans melody BK 2902-07. It is not in the dictionary.

Antikwita is attested twice: han kynsa ew antiquite, henew cotheneb TH 34a; ha confyrmys gans antiquite, henew cotheneb TH 49. The word is not in the dictionary.

The words charet ‘chariot’ and army ‘army’ are attested:

sownde a verth, charettys, ha Army bras TH 56a
nyns esa na marth, charet, na army TH 56a.

Neither is in the SWF dictionary.

The word body with the sense ‘body, person’ is attested in five different texts: 

ny a whyth in thy vody OM 61
na mar hovtyn a’y vody OM 2069
yma cleves y’m body OM 2146
mernans yv gvyw th’y vody OM 2242
dew vody tha ough yn guyr OM 2461
dev yv spirys hep body PC 1732
y spyrys neffre hep gow byth ny thue yn y vody PC 1749-50
man geffo pup ol bysne ow myres worth y vody PC 2092-93
hag y a wyth y vody PC 3199
awoys sawya vn body BM 1658
Ren ena us om body BM 1809
molleth du war y vody BM 3279
del os body heb paraw BK 396
joy war the vody ha ras! BK 877
hearlygh in agys body BK 1166
Nyng es ewyth in the vody moy ys leugh BK 1244-46.
Me ew body dyspusond, Augel, myghtern in Scotland BK 1279-80
war e vody a ra spyt BK 2666
hag a wheth in y body CW 347.

Body does not seem to be in the dictionary.

Chast ‘chaste’ is attested:

an pith ew only an chast spowse a crist TH 33
rag henna woza hemma in chast gwren ny kesvewa CW 1313-14.

It does not appear to be in the dictionary.

Chastita is attested in TH: govenek, charite, paciens, chastite TH 9. It is not in the dictionary.

The word konsekratya is attested in two texts:

bethens eff consecratis BM 2984
may halla an nenaf bos consecratis SA 60a
nyng o Corf Christ kyns ef the vos consecratis SA 62
Kyns an bara the vos consecratis SA 62
bus osa the vos consecratis SA 62
disquethas thyn an bois the vos consecratis SA 62a
pan vova consecratis SA 63a.

It doesn’t appear to be in the SWF dictionary.

The dictionary gives Derivadow an Gemynogyon as their translation of the Communist Manifesto. A version in Unified Cornish Revised was published by the CPGB in October 2016 (ISBN 978-1-908315-35-9) with the title Deryvadow Party an Gemynwer. The compilers of the dictionary should perhaps have cited this title suitably respelt.

The word devocyon is well attested: 

na letyogh ov devoconn BM 2963
pedyr, rag an sowndnys han substans ay devocyon, ew gylwys an garrak TH 45a
accordyng the quantyte aga devotion SA 64
tha vos y relevis dir an devotion aga hvthmans SA 66
a rys gans lune devocyon BK 2676.

This word does not seem to be in the dictionary.

The dictionary cites dibenna ‘to behead’, which is attested in BM and BK. They also give dibenn ‘eternal’. This latter word, which is not attested, more naturally means ‘headless’. ‘

Enmy ‘enemy, enemies’ is attested: 

Agys enmy… BK 667
war the enmy a rys gans lune devocyon BK 2675
warlergh dyswul ow enmy BK 3219.

Enmy does not seem to be in the SWF dictionary.

The dictionary cites govis ‘regard’ and suggests that it has a plural. This is not true. The word is attested four times and on each occasion in the expression a’m govys ‘on my behalf’:

saw gvraa vn dra a’m govys but do one thing for me OM 76
del russys moy a’m govys worth ow formye haval thys as you have done more on my behalf creating me like you OM 108-09
na gemerre den vyth greff na duwen am govys vy let no man be aggrieved nor sorrowful on my account BM 405-06
thywhywhy y fye cam boys lethys am govys vy it would be a wrong for you to be killed on my behalf BM 1654-55.

The dictionary’s treatment of govis is deficient.

The word gwardya ‘to guard’ is attested in BK: Ny wothys gwardya preson BK 527. It is not in the SWF dictionary.

The dictionary says that hager-brev refers to the serpent in the book of Genesis. This is true but not exclusively so: rag henna scon yz eth ef ze wrek pylat may zeze ha’n tebel el hager bref yn y holon a worre war y mester venions cref y to Ihesus mar laze PA 122b-d.

The English borrowing injury is attested twice in TH: ymowns ow kull inivri ha cam the crist TH 17a; inivry ha cam an parna TH 48a.

The word kothenep ‘antiquity’ is attested twice in TH: han kynsa ew antiquite, henew cotheneb TH 34a; confyrmys gans antiquite, henew cotheneb TH 49. It does not appear to be in the dictionary.

The word par occurs as a preposition in the expression par termyn ‘at one time; at another time’: pare tyrmyn in vn sort, ha pare tyrmyn in sort arell TH 55. This does not seem to be in the dictionary.

Under ‘take revenge’ the dictionary gives diala; venjya. It does not mention the common expressions A) kemeres dyal, B) tewlel dyal and C) gul dyal:

my ny gemere neffre trom dyal war ol an veys OM 1208-09
luen dyal war ol an beys ny gemeraf vynytha 0M 1233-34

kyn fynnyf war an bys-ma tevlel vyngeanns na dyal OM1249-50
warnotho telywgh dyal RD 1753-54
a du an neff tayl dyel warnogh BM 1595-96
mayth hylly towlal dyal war the yskar in fasow BK 2634-35
Drog-chauns war an kynwelas, na alsan ny teulal dyal BK 3278-79
Warnotha, Du, tal dyel! BK 3283 

na allaf sparie na moy hep gul dyel a ver speys war pep ol sur marnas ty OM 946-48
ow bothe yth ew indella gweyll deall war oll an byes CW 2228-29.

Parlet ‘prelate’ is attested:

parlet mar stovt prence war an vebyen lyen nynsus in breten vyen ov parov pur guir heb dovt BM 515-17
me ath ra parlet vhel BM 1468
Gelwys off epscop kernov in breten heb feladov parlet worthy BM 2860-62
Me yv epscop a theveys ha parlet mur ov rasov BM 3915-16.

Parlet is not in the SWF dictionary.

The dictionary gives uheldas for ‘patriarch.’ This is cited in OCV as huweltat. They do not cite patriark, which is attested twice: an patriark benegas Abraham a remembras ay thalleth TH 6-6a and the thos thean stok a Abraham an patriark TH 13.

The word verement ‘truly’ is attested twice: asyv an den-na goky mar myn er-agan-pyn ny cous reson vyth uerement PC 1662-64; duen alemma verement brays ha byen BM 2927-28. It does not appear to be in the dictionary.

The word virjin is attested in two different texts:

ha trewethow the dege virgin TH 31
tha virgin deke pur havall CW 500
now in toppe an wethan deake yth esa vn virgyn wheake CW 1907-08.

Virjin is not in the SWF dictionary.

The word voys ‘voice’ is attested in the texts:

Otte voys mernans abel the vroder prest ov kelwel OM 577-78
arluth ny vynnons crysy na clewas ov voys a vy OM 1435-36
may reys thy’mmo yn tor-ma a clewas ol y voys ef OM 1486-87
saw un voys whek a belder a-ughaf in uhelder ow kowsal cler a leveris pur ylyn BK 13-6
ow voice oll yta changis CW 530
yta voice mernans abell thethe vrodar prest ow kylwall CW 1155-56
theth voice arluth a glowaf saw tha face me ny wellaf CW 1166-67.

Voys does not appear to be in the dictionary.

That is enough for now.

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